Saturday, March 21, 2020
How To Talk About Books You HaventRead Or, Why Its Okay to Use Study Guides Modern literatis everywhere are faced with a crippling predicament: every month of the year, publishing houses churn out one bestseller after another, each one peaking our interest more than the last. And true booklovers, or at least those who want to be considered such, are expected to read an impossible amount of these, not to mention the hundreds of important works of literature that already exist in the world. How to face this hurdle in ones path to acceptance within that coveted literary inner circle? Why, we play pretend, of course. UtterlyÃ sacrilegiousÃ in its title butÃ irresistiblyÃ pragmatic in its nature, Pierre BayardsÃ How To Talk About Books You Havent Read has been hailed asÃ Ã¢â¬Å"a survivorÃ¢â¬â¢s guide to life in the chattering classes.Ã¢â¬ But before you pounce on and decry us in the educational realm as hypocrites, have a read on to see what Bayard has to say about the science of non-reading Non-reading is not just the absence of reading. It is a genuine activity, one that consists of adopting a stance in relation to the immense tide of books that protects you from drowning. On that basis, it deserves to be defended and even taught. The key to non-reading and making it work, as psychoanalyst and University of Paris literature professor Bayard says, is orientation. Thinking back to all of the books weve read, thought weve read, read about, or merely heard whispers of, the way we process and recall all of these works is based on how we orientate them in our memories; its how one knows without ever opening, say,Ã Ulysses,Ã its importance to the literary world. We then navigate the vast library of all of these read and unread books in terms of their significance to literature as a whole: A book is an element in the vast ensemble I have called theÃ collective library, which we do not need to know comprehensively in order to appreciate any one of its elementsÃ¢â¬ ¦ The trick is to define the bookÃ¢â¬â¢s place in that library, which gives it meaning in the same way a word takes on meaning in relation to other words. Bayard goes so far as to stress the importance of making these connections between booksÃ overÃ simply reading and comprehending a single book: Rather than any particular book, it is indeed these connections and correlations that should be the focus of the cultivated individual, much as a railroad switchman should focus on the relations between trains - that is, their crossings and transfers - rather than the contents of any specific convoy. Now this is not to say that we encourage or condone that you not read, and especially that you not read what is assigned of you in class. But it brings up a good point. I have never read, nor do I really desire or have the time to read, War and Peace, at least not anymore than I want to read a growing list of about 50 other, newer titles that I have to catch up onÃ (ones that arent 363 chapters long). But thats not to say that I shouldnt be able or expected to know the novels significance. In Bayards eyes, there is more shame in admitting that you dont know what a book is about than being able to talk about a book you havent read for yourself: Only in accepting our non-reading without shame can we begin to take an interest in what is actually at stake, which is not a book but a complex interpersonal situation of which the book is less the object than the consequence. In summation, rather than giving us permission to disregard great works of literature, Bayard gives us his ode to books with How To Talk About Books, stating that this is a method we mustÃ practice to employ the fantastic way that literature helps us make sense of a confusing world. So there you have it. You may freely use study guides to become a fuller person with a more fruitful inner library. For further non-reading, you may also want to flip throughÃ Flavorwires neat little cheat sheet to help you talk about theÃ ten important books you probably havent read. In the meantime, feel free to use this as an excuse to not read Bayards book. Just make sure you label it afterwards, according to the authors tidy (anal) cataloguing system: UB book unknown to me SBÃ book I have skimmed HBÃ book I have heard about FBÃ book I have forgotten
Thursday, March 5, 2020
What's a Weighted GPA How to Calculate It SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Your weighted GPA in high school tells colleges a lot about your ability to take on academic challenges. In this article, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll go through a basic description of what a weighted GPA is, why it matters for you, and how you can calculate your own weighted GPA if your school uses this type of scale. What Is a Weighted GPA? A weighted GPA is a GPA that takes the difficulty of your classes into account along with your grades. On a typical unweighted scale (which is solely based on grades and not on the difficulty of your classes), GPAs are recorded as numbers ranging from 0 to 4.0.This scale is why the ideal of the perfect 4.0 GPA exists. If your school uses weighted GPAs, however, the scale goes up higher.Typically a weighted GPA scale ranges from 0 to 5.0.This is to accommodate grades in AP or honors courses, where an A on the weighted scale translates to a 5.0 based on the difficulty of the class.Regular-level classes maintain the typical unweighted scale, where an A translates into a 4.0.Many schools also offer mid-level classes between regular and honors classes where an A translates into a 4.5. This means that someone who takes more difficult courses throughout high school will end up with a higher weighted GPA than someone who takes less difficult courses even if their actual grades are identical. Why Should You Care About Your Weighted GPA? You should pay attention to your weighted GPA because it will have an impact on the college application process and on how you interpret advice about GPAs. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re trying to figure out whether your GPA is Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ , most of the advice you find will be based on the unweighted scale.This is because the unweighted scale is more widely used, and weighted scales often differ between high schools. This advice can be misleading for students who only know their weighted GPAs. If you have a 4.0 weighted GPA, you're not necessarily good to go for admission to any college.A student with a 4.0 weighted GPA may be in the lowest-level classes earning all As or in the highest-level classes earning all Bs.Even with the same weighted GPA, these two cases will not be viewed the same way.Colleges will favor the student with Bs in high-level classes because that student was willing to take on more academic challenges. Weighted GPAs incentivize you to take more difficult classes without fear of slightly lower grades messing up your GPA.Earning high grades in harder classes will have a significant positive influence on your weighted GPA.Imagine a student is earning all Bs in regular-level classes, giving him or her a 3.0 weighted GPA.Then letÃ¢â¬â¢s say that student decides to switch into more difficult classes in two of the five subject areas and earns B-s in those classes.Even with slightly lower grades, this would move the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s weighted GPA for the semester up from a 3.0 to a 3.3. Want to build the best possible college application? We can help. PrepScholar Admissions is the world's best admissions consulting service. We combine world-class admissions counselors with our data-driven, proprietary admissions strategies. We've overseen thousands of students get into their top choice schools, from state colleges to the Ivy League. We know what kinds of students colleges want to admit. We want to get you admitted to your dream schools. Learn more about PrepScholar Admissions to maximize your chance of getting in. With weighted GPA, you can become an academic mountain goat, fearlessly scaling the rocky crags of progressively more challenging classes. How to Calculate Weighted GPA So with all this in mind, how do you calculate your weighted GPA?ItÃ¢â¬â¢s pretty easy if you know your grades so far in high school and the levels of classes youÃ¢â¬â¢ve taken.The simplest way to translate grades into weighted GPA is to follow the unweighted scale for regular-level classes, add 0.5 to the unweighted scale for mid-level classes (such as honors classes), and add 1.0 to the unweighted scale for high-level classes (such as APs). HereÃ¢â¬â¢s the unweighted scale for reference: Grade GPA A+ 4.0 A 4.0 A- 3.7 B+ 3.3 B 3.0 B- 2.7 C+ 2.3 C 2.0 C- 1.7 D+ 1.3 D 1.0 F 0.0 One way to calculate your weighted GPA is to find your average unweighted GPA and multiply that by the number of classes you've taken. Then, add 0.5 for each mid-level class you took and 1.0 for each high-level class you took. Divide the result by the total number of classes to find your weighted GPA so far. I'll use a hypthetical example to go through a more detailed description of how to calculate weighted GPA. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s say youÃ¢â¬â¢re in the middle of your sophomore year, so youÃ¢â¬â¢ve completed three semesters of high school thus far. Here are some example charts of the classes you may have taken, their levels, and your grades for each semester: First Semester Freshman Year Class Level Letter Grade Unweighted GPA Weighted GPA 1 Honors Biology B+ 3.3 3.8 2 Honors Algebra 1 B 3.0 3.5 3 Honors Human Geography B 3.0 3.5 4 Freshman English A 4.0 4.0 5 Spanish 1 A- 3.7 3.7 The weighted GPA for this semester is the average of all the numbers in the last column.Your first semester freshman year weighted GPA would be a 3.7. For the second semester, letÃ¢â¬â¢s say you continued to take the same level classes but improved your grades: Second Semester Freshman Year Class Level Letter Grade Unweighted GPA Weighted GPA 1 Honors Biology A 4.0 4.5 2 Honors Algebra 1 B+ 3.3 3.8 3 Honors Human Geography B+ 3.3 3.8 4 Freshman English A 4.0 4.0 5 Spanish 1 A 4.0 4.0 This time, when we average all the numbers in the last column, your second semester freshman year weighted GPA is a 4.0. For the first semester of sophomore year, letÃ¢â¬â¢s say you decided to take mostly mid-level classes with one high-level class (you were ready to move up in the mid-level class and the regular-level classes where you earned As!). First Semester Sophomore Year Class Level Letter Grade Unweighted GPA Weighted GPA 1 AP World History B+ 3.3 4.3 2 Honors Chemistry B+ 3.3 3.8 3 Honors Algebra II B+ 3.3 3.8 4 Honors English A- 3.7 4.2 5 Honors Spanish II A- 3.7 4.2 If we average all the numbers in the last column, your first semester sophomore year weighted GPA comes out to a 4.1. Now, to figure out your cumulative GPA, we just have to average the weighted GPAs from each semester (note that this only works if you took the same amount of classes each semester - if you didn't, I would recommend just using the formula I described earlier in this section rather than going semester by semester). Semester Weighted GPA First - Freshman Year 3.7 Second - Freshman Year 4.0 First - Sophomore Year 4.1 Cumulative 3.9 So far, your cumulative weighted GPA is a 3.9. Hopefully this example will help you understand how to calculate your weighted GPA.If your school is more specific about what grade corresponds to what GPA (i.e. it assigns a different GPA to different averages within each letter grade, so a 90 A- would translate to a lower GPA than a 92 A-),take a look at this more detailed chart to make your calculations more accurate. Conclusion Weighted GPA is a way for high schools to create a measure of academic achievement that takes into account the difficulty of a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s course load and not just his or her grades alone.On a weighted GPA scale, GPAs typically range from 0 to 5.0, with a 5.0 representing all As in the highest-level classes.Weighted GPA gives you a way to gauge your progress throughout high school based on both grades AND willingness to take on intellectual challenges. You shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t judge your weighted GPA by its position on the unweighted scale.Even weighted GPAs that are over a 4.0 are not guaranteed to get you into the most selective schools.Based on the example in this article, you should be able to calculate your weighted GPA and determine whether you need to take more difficult classes to improve your stats for college! What's Next? Now that you know about weighted GPA, you may be wondering whether colleges will consider it more or less strongly than your basic unweighted GPA. Learn about which GPA matters more for collegeadmissions. Are you just wondering whether your weighted or unweighted GPA will be considered "good" in the college admissions process? Take a look at this article on what constitutes a good or bad GPA for college. Not sure which classes you should be taking in high school to ensure that you have a good shot at selective colleges? Read this article for some advice! Want to improve your GPA?Check out our in-depth guide to raising your grades, from a writer who got a perfect 4.0 GPA. Read it for free now:
Monday, February 17, 2020
Australian economy - Essay Example It has also been volatile. The high rate of the terms of trade plays its part in increasing the real income level. The rate also acts in keeping the rate of inflation at lower levels. The ratio between the prices of exports and the imports is defined to be the terms of trade. If the terms of trade rise Australia will have the potential to buy more imports with smaller amounts of exports. The volatility in the terms of trade can be used to define the ups and down in the expending capacity of the consumers. The terms of trade has been less volatile for Australia since the period of 1980s.The variety of goods that are offered to the consumers and the global prices for the exports as well as the imports comprises the two main components of terms of trade. The developments within the environment outside the geographical boundary of Australia can influence the terms of trade. The terms of trade can rise if the price of coal raises more steeply than the price other ICT goods since Australia is a net exporter of coal. The exchange rates and the terms of trade shares close relation. The nominal exchange rates got reduced after the financial crisis of 1990s. The volatility of the import prices can be influenced by the regional influences but changes in the global prices can affect to change the prices of exports. ... Over the last decade and a half Australia turned away from comparatively price impulsive properties and took the initiative towards moving towards exports of goods whose prices can be more predictable in the global market (Australian Government Productivity Commission, 2012). The rural goods now consist of a major proportion of goods that are exported. The wide ranges of exports that are practiced by Australia consist of rural goods like vegetables and dairy products. It can be experienced that the exports of such goods has grown in the recent months and can be thought as one of the reasons for Australia experiencing a high rate of terms of trade. In due course of time the exports of the rural goods have risen. The following graph will show the terms of trade for Australia over the period under consideration. (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 2011, p. 5) Question b Economic growth is related with terms of trade. It can be witnessed that term of trade rises when an economy is experiencing economic growth while the terms of trade falls when the economy is stagnated and is not witnessing any growth. Under such cases the terms of trade will fall (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 2011). Therefore in order to analyze the terms of trade of Australia it is necessary to judge the economic growth of the country for the period under consideration. The factors that have the potential to influence the terms of trade have been discussed below in bullet format. The shifts in the demand level on the global arena The commodity market shocks Globalization shocks The prices of exports are raised by the joint influence of fluctuations in global demand and commodity shocks in the market. The prices of imports are reduced
Monday, February 3, 2020
Mortality Data Paper - Assignment Example Arrangement of data may take place in any way that the researcher may desire. If the data is in the form of percentages then they may be arranged in an ascending or descending order. The same goes for any data in a numerical form; whether it is the arrangement according to position of something or its quantity, the data is arranged in a fine order in this step. In the second step the illustration or representation of the collected data takes place. There are several ways in which a data can be represented. A graph can be used to demonstrate the percentage or amount of something. Apart from graphs, bar charts of many kinds are used as well; stem and leaf diagrams, tables, pie charts, histograms and such are used as well. This step only includes the choice of way one might desire to represent their data in. The last step of Descriptive Statistics includes mentioning a summary of the collected data. In here an attempt of explaining what the research was conducted on, what methods were used for it, what was the targeted population, the results obtained from the research and a theory that the researchers might have deduced from the obtained results. Ã¢â¬Å"The highest death toll of a population from strokes or cerebrovascular diseases is the population belonging to the middle-income countries while the lowest is the population from low income countries.Ã¢â¬ A diseases cluster is known as the occurrence of a disease which targets a larger number of people instead of the expected number of populations in a certain area, group of people or time period (California Department of Public Health). An epidemic is known as an outbreak of a biological or viral disorder which spreads into the population of the world. The area for an epidemic is not a certain one and it may spread in many locations at a period of time. The targeted area is not restricted to any kind, any population may become a target and the patients are not isolated to a certain community. Epidemics
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Ways Children Looked After By Local Authority Social Work Essay In the context of Shona and her family, this assignment will firstly review the powers and orders necessary to bring the children to be looked after by the local authority along with the governing principles. It will then discuss relevant areas for review and the required order to ensure good care for the children, including how and when these should be reviewed. Finally, looking at the significance to the case study of s17 of Children Act, 1989 along with considering the different services presented to each sibling whilst in care. Police Powers Shonas case is discovered by police officers under-taking ordinary duties when social services departments and the courts are closed (Masson, 2001). CA, 1989 s46(1) gives the police power, without going to court, to remove or detain children for 72 hours if they have reasonable cause to believe that the children are likely to suffer significant harm (Brammer, 2010; Powell, 2001). Social Service Managers recognise the value of s46 as an emergency intervention but have criticised its excessive use as a result of police anxiety (Masson, 2001). The principle is that courts should make a decision to remove children wherever possible; therefore, s46 is to be used in exceptional circumstances. The local authority should have in place with the Clerks to the Justices an out of hours Emergency Protection Order (EPO) application process (HO Circular, 2008). Emergency Protection Order EPO is a short-term emergency measure, lasting up to 8 days with a possible extension of a further 7 days, whilst the local authority under CA, 1989 s47 investigates the childrens welfare. S44(1) of the act outlines the grounds for applications for an EPO of which there are two forms (any person and likely to suffer significant harm). The local authoritys application for Shona and her siblings is on the grounds that they are likely to suffer significant harm due to domestic violence. Although the court may agree that there are grounds for an EPO, it still needs to apply the principles contained in Part 1 of the act. Principles governing the decision-making Welfare Principle CA, 1989 s1 states that, the childs welfare shall be the courts paramount consideration. The meaning of s1 has been closely examined and criticised due to its wide range of interpretations (Brammer, 2010; Brayne and Carr, 2010). Decisions based on the welfare of the child are ultimately value judgements (Ryan, 1998: 8) Therefore, a checklist was added to maintain consistency and provide clear understanding (Ryan, 1998 and Brammer, 2010). For an EPO the court must consider the welfare principle but it does not have to consider the checklist (Brayne and Carr, 2010). Non-Delay Principle CA, 1989 s1(2), supported by European Court of Human Rights article 6(1), emphasises that any delay in court proceedings is potentially harmful to the welfare of the child (Brayne and Carr, 2010), therefore, the court needs to have regard to the non-delay principle. The Public Law Outline (PLO), 2008 attempted to address case management and avoid delays in court proceedings by setting a timetable. Masson argues that Legislating against delay did not change working practices; adult parties continue to create advantageous delay (2010; 55). No-order Principle CA, 1989 s1(5) directs courts to make no order, even if the harm threshold condition is satisfied, unless it considers that making an order would be better for the child than making no order at all (known as the no-order principle). The principle recognises the need for proportionality with three foundational aims: 1) discourage unnecessary court orders, 2) to ensure that the order is granted only where it is likely positively to improve the childs welfare and 3) discourage the making of unnecessary applications (DCSF, 2008: 7). If government guidance discourages unnecessary applications, this may account for research findings showing a general misunderstanding of this principle amongst local authorities who interpret it to mean that cases should not be taken to court unless it is totally necessary. The recent increase in court applications may demonstrate that the principle is not preventing Social Workers from carrying out their duties (DCSF, 2008; Brayne and Carr, 2010). The majority of court proceedings have resulted in orders being granted, therefore Mason argues, Neither the public nor the courts themselves have accepted the no order principle (2010, 57). Areas Needing to be looked at: Threshold Question As Shona has been in care for approximately three years, the local authority would have applied for a court order. This cannot be obtained without meeting the threshold criteria of CA, 1989 s31: identifying significant harm, cause for the harm and no order principle (Ryan, 1998; DOH, 1999). Significant harm has to be found to exist before the court will intervene in family life, however, as the term is not defined it causes considerable problems of interpretation. The Adoption and Children Act, 2002 s120 broadened harm to include witnessing or hearing it, which would be relevant in the case of Shona (Brammer, 2010). Assessment The children would be assessed under the child protection structure due to the physical abuse Liam endured and his sisters witnessed. This structure has evolved through a series of reports and government circulars. In 2008, the Children Act Guidance Volume One was revised and issued under s7 of the Local Authority Social Service Act, 1970 which provided clarity for what should be completed before making an order application (Brayne and Carr, 2010). Working Together to Safeguard Children, 2010 provides interagency guidance on assessment and investigation. The Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and Their Families, 2000 provided, under one structured system, a holistic assessment and planning tool for all children in need (Thomas, 2005: 83). Using the framework, the local authority, through the core assessment process, will need to consider both the childrens and parents needs along with those in the wider family and community, to reach a decision that an order is necessary to safeguard their welfare. The local authority would also need to seek legal advice and communicate to the parents their concerns (DCSF, 2008). Care Plan ACA, 2002 amended s31 of the CA, 1989 so that an order cannot be made until the court has considered a care plan (Brammer, 2010). A separate plan would be required for Shona, Liam and Siobhan so the court can consider their individual needs. The plans should be based on findings from the initial and core assessments with the structure, as guided by Local Authority Circular 99(29), 1999, being: 1) overall aim, 2) childs needs, 3) views of others, 4) detail on placement and 5) local authority management. The courts decision on the no-order principle will take into account the care plan for verification as to how the order would be applied (DOH, 2000). What Orders May Have Been Necessary Care Order In having met the threshold criteria, completed assessment and care plan the local authority under s31 would apply for a care order for the children. A care order, rather than a supervision order, involves the children being removed from their home and provides the local authority with shared parental responsibility for the children alongside the parents (Brayne and Carr, 2010). Reviews by Local Authority Upon granting an order, the court has no influence in the plan being carried out (Brammer, 2010). ACA, 2002 amended s25(a) CA, 1989 by requiring an Independent Review Officer (IRO) to be appointed to chair all review meetings of looked after children, ensure the child is involved in the review and will challenge poor practice, and any drift in implementing the Care Plan (HMG, 2003: 45). If the plan is not implemented the IRO can pass the case to CAFCASS who can now return it to court (Brammer, 2010). CA, 1989 s26 makes it a legal requirement for local authorities to regularly review the childrens care plans. Reviews ensure that it [plan] is being effectively implemented and to make any changes that have become necessary (Thomas, 2005: 76). All involved in the care of the children, including the child, should be involved in the review. The minimum requirements which reflect the no-delay principle, are set out in the Review of Childrens Cases Regulations 1991, amended in 2004. The first review should be held within four weeks of the children becoming looked after, followed by a further review at three months later and then six monthly (Brammer, 2010; Ryan, 1998). Relevance of s17 to case study Views of Parents Under s17 of CA, 1989, the local authority has a general duty to promote the upbringing of children in need by their families and with article 8 of the Human Rights Act, 1989; they would need to justify any interference in family life. Working Together, 2010 re-emphasized the commitment of partnership with parents in making plans for the welfare and protection of their children. There are a number of ways the local authority can work in partnership with Shonas parents; through consultation, taking into consideration their views, attendance at case conferences and being notified of any public proceedings (Brayne and Carr, 2010). CA 1989, s17 also makes clear that the first priority is to promote and safeguard the childrens welfare and then try to keep them within their family (Brayne and Carr, 2010). Provided that the welfare and safety of the children is paramount then potentially there should be no conflict between the principles of family support and child protection (Parton, 1997). However, research has shown that full partnership is difficult to reach when risks are high and families disagree with the perceived risks (Bell, 1999). The recent case of Baby Peter has highlighted the importance of Shonas Social Worker having the skill to recognize when partnership with the parents is failing to protect them (Brayne and Carr, 2010). The fathers violence towards the children could be a reason to exclude him from any conferences but his wishes can be obtained by other means (DCSF, 2010). It is also important to recognise that the childrens views and wishes may be different to their parents. Childs wishes The Children Act, 2004 s53 amended s17 of CA, 1989 making it a requirement that before deciding what services should be provided the childrens wishes should be obtained and given consideration (DCSF, 2010). CA, 1989 s22 by mentioning the child before the parents suggests that the childs wishes are to be the first consideration (Brayne and Carr, 2010). The law has also been criticised for assuming that it is possible to know objectively what is in a childs best interest but instead should give the children themselves a role in determining what happens (Thomas, 2005). However, the emphasis of listening to the childs wishes has recently been criticised as it undermines the courts authority to make a best interest decision (Times, 2010). Laws, policies and procedures continue to reflect he tension between these twin goals of safeguarding children and advocating their rights (Adams, 2009; 304). To ensure that the childs interests, wishes and rights are upheld in court, CA, 1989 s41(1) contains the duty, if required, for a Childrens Guardian to be appointed from CAFCASS (Brayne and Carr, 2010). Placement Details The local authority whilst taking into consideration the views of the children and parents, will have regards for s17 when considering placements for the children. The CA, 1989 s44(a) was amended by the Family Law Act, 1996 giving power to include exclusion requirement in emergency protection order. This could have been an option looked at in the case of Shona with the father being excluded from the family home (Brayne and Carr, 2010). Consideration of family members and friends as potential carers for Shona and her siblings should be explored and clearly demonstrated in their care plans before making a court order application (DCSF, 2008). S23(7) CA, 1989 promotes contact between parents and children with local authority, as is reasonably practicable, providing accommodation near to the family home and keeping siblings together. Under schedule 2 of CA, 1989 there are powers given to the local authority to assist in maintaining links between children and their family (Brayne and Carr , 2010). Options Available to each child Family Group Conference There are several methods for compiling the childrens care plans, with one such option being Family Group Conference (FGC) (Thomas, 2005). FGC has been described as a, realistic methods for merging the needs and interests of children and families and the protection concerns of public child welfare agencies, the courts, and the community (Chandler and Giovannucci, 2004: 217). Although there is no factual data, reviews of FGCs have implied that it is not a suitable option for domestic violence cases due to the welfare of the child. However, in the case of Shona, FGC may have been a viable option when initially becoming children cared for to help explore the welfare concerns, deciding what services are necessary and to take into consideration the children and parents views when considering permanency so to prevent the children becoming entrenched in the care system (Chandler and Giovannucci, 2004). Accommodation The local authority has a power under s20 CA, 1989 to provide accommodation to the three children (Ryan, 1998). From initially coming into care (the sisters going to foster care and Liam to residential care) up until their current situation (Shona and Siobhan different wishes to return home) decisions on the provision of accommodation have been paramount with the options to be explored being: kinship, foster care, residential, reunification, adoption and independence. ACA, 2002 provides guidance on the timescales for decisions about adoption with permanence, including adoption, needing to be considered at the second care plan review (Brayne and Carr, 2010: 378). Education / Crime Due to the highly publicised statistics of children in cares educational underachievement, crime rates and employability, the recent government has made a number of changes to legislation. Under s20 of the Children and Young Persons Act, 2008 all three children will have (had) a designated member of staff at their school responsibility for promoting the educational achievement. The local authority under s22 should provide for under 25 year olds assistance to pursue education or training which is relevant to Liam and Shonas current situation (Brammer, 2010: 356). Although the agenda for change is not without criticism, Its policy recommendations are framed within a social investment approach which values education as the route out of exclusion and into employability (Williams, 2004; 423). Schedule 2(7) of CA, 1989 puts an onus on the local authority to take reasonable steps designed to reduce the need to bring criminal proceedings against such children (Brammer, 2010: 369). Therefore the Youth Offending Team (YOT) could be a service considered for Liam. Adams argues that the number of detained children is high in the UK with, policy and practice regarding children and young people who have committed offences remain stubbornly resistant to welfare principles (2009; 318). Legal Requirements In 2003 the government published Every Child Matters (ECM) which introduced five outcomes for service providers to make arrangements to improve the well being of children: being healthy, staying safe, enjoying and achieving, making a positive contribution and economic wellbeing (2003:6-7). CA, 2004 was passed to provide a statutory framework for applying ECM with the five outcomes included in s10(2) of the act (Brayne and Carr, 2010). The act also introduced the requirement for working together of statutory departments and other relevant bodies for achieving the five outcomes (Brammer, 2010). In theory this provides Shona, Liam and Siobham with greater opportunity for services from public, private and voluntary sectors, however, this legislative change did not come with an increase in budget (Williams, 2004). The responsibility of the local authority to provide services to the children is outlined in schedule 2 of CA, 1989. The wording is moderated for example reasonable steps or con sider appropriate, therefore the local authority can prioritise services based on what is available rather than having to meet every need (Brammer, 2010). When more than one agency is involved in the childrens care a lead professional will be appointed to be responsible for ensuring a coherent package of services to meet the individual childs needs (HMG, 2003: 9). Conclusion In the situation of Shona and her family, this assignment has highlighted the current social and political thinking towards safeguarding children with the balance in the CA, 1989 between welfare and childrens wishes; the emphasis on partnership with parents; the importance of accountability through reviews and the value placed on children remaining with their families. The five outcomes for children in care provide a framework for the provision of services, however, the limitation in budgets does not support the political agenda.
Saturday, January 18, 2020
The poem we have been analysing in class, Dulce et Decorum Est, was written by a man named Wilfred Owen. Wilfred Owen was a soldier in the first world war and was born on the 18th of March 1893, and died on the 4th of November 1918, a week before the end of the first world war. In this poem, OwenÃ¢â¬â¢s objective is to show the horror and reality of war, and to set this horror against the way in which war was often glorified. His objection, the glorification of war is reflected in the title, Ã¢â¬Å"Dulce et Decorum EstÃ¢â¬ This is translated as Ã¢â¬Å"It is sweet and gloriousÃ¢â¬ . Wilfred Owen uses this as a form of irony, to draw in the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s attention. It was especially meant for another war poet, Jesse Pope. She wrote about all the good and positive reasons for war, and tried to encourage men to go and fight for their country. You can easily feel how Wilfred Owen felt about the first world war. His use of adjectives like Ã¢â¬Å"bitterÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"helplessÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"smothering dreamsÃ¢â¬ and the use of imagery, give us a clear picture of what it was like. These words are used to convey the ugliness, fear, poignancy and the pain of the war. Wilfred Owen uses clear tones throughout the poem help us to understand how he felt, and why he felt this way. In most of the poem, the tone is quite angry, due to the choice of words and how they are used. Owen gives us graphic descriptions, speaking in a very direct and straight forward way. His use of the word Ã¢â¬Å"youÃ¢â¬ in the third stanza, emphasizes my point clearly. He uses this to draw us in, and to make us feel how he felt. Not only does he make us feel how he felt, but the poet makes us use our senses. He makes us hear this one man dying, struggling for life. He makes us taste the bitterness of war, and the reality of it. All of these techniques are used in the poem, because he wants us to be shocked at the reality that he is presenting. In his illustration of war, Owen describes an incident of exhausted soldiers trudging through the mud, clearly unhappy and very tired. They are all leaving the front line in order to rest for a while in a safer place. Before this can happen the group get attacked by a sea of gas. Owen explains how one soldier is late in putting on his mask. Wilfred Owen describes the symptoms shown by this man as the poison slowly kills him. He then tells us how this man Ã¢â¬Å"plungesÃ¢â¬ at him, Ã¢â¬Å"guttering, choking, drowningÃ¢â¬ . Owen is helpless; he canÃ¢â¬â¢t do anything to save this manÃ¢â¬â¢s life. This man is forever haunting his dreams. Wilfred Owen then says Ã¢â¬Å"My friend you would not tell with such high zestÃ¢â¬ So, directly speaking to us, and Jesse Pope, or anyone who thinks that war is sweet or glorious, that itÃ¢â¬â¢s actually a lie! The poet then repeats the title as Ã¢â¬Å"the old lieÃ¢â¬ : Ã¢â¬Å"Dulce et Decorum Est Pro patria moriÃ¢â¬ . The full translation of this is Ã¢â¬Å"It is sweet and glorious to die for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s countryÃ¢â¬ . In Stanza 1, I have already briefly talked about the contrast between the title of the poem and the actual poem itself. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s ironic. When we think of the title we imagine men with high spirits, willing to fight for their country, not Ã¢â¬Å"old beggars under sacksÃ¢â¬ , smelly and dirty, with the weight of the war weighing them down. In an instant we start to realise that war isnÃ¢â¬â¢t sweet or glorious. The word Ã¢â¬Å"beggarsÃ¢â¬ implies that maybe the soldiers were of low ranks. That they have all, no matter what rank, have been reduced to a basic human level, dependant on others for their survival. Ã¢â¬Å"SacksÃ¢â¬ are like rags; this gives the impression that the soldiers havenÃ¢â¬â¢t even been given adequate warm clothing. All this imagery creates sympathy for the soldiers and uses an image that you will be able to relate to. The rhythm in the first stanza is slow, with lots of commas. Owen uses punctuation like this because he wants you to see war for what it is. The use of commas, slow what you are reading down, and making it longer, as if you are walking/trudging alongside these tired soldiers. As the stanza goes on Owen shortens the sentences, they are getting slower and slower, emphasizing the soldiers exhaustion. Also the words Ã¢â¬Å"trudgeÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"sludgeÃ¢â¬ give a heavy sound and feel to the poem, as if you can hear the soldierÃ¢â¬â¢s heavy footsteps. The last line of the first stanza, Wilfred Owen uses alliteration, Ã¢â¬Å"gas shells dropping softly behindÃ¢â¬ , the repeated Ã¢â¬Å"SÃ¢â¬ sound, the sibilant Ã¢â¬Å"SÃ¢â¬ , makes a soft and smooth sound, like a lullaby, slowly easing you to sleep. This hints at what the soldiers feel like, tired and exhausted. Owen uses this for a contrast in the next line. Ã¢â¬Å"Gas! Gas!Ã¢â¬ this is more powerful and contrasting technique used here to create an atmosphere of panic and horror. The use of exclamation marks here also portray a scene of panicking and rushing. Owen uses direct speech here to draw us in and to speak to us, which is different from the first stanza where Owen uses the past tense. The imagery here is really engaging; it gives us the sense of rushing Ã¢â¬Å"to fit the clumsy helmetsÃ¢â¬ . The word Ã¢â¬Å"clumsyÃ¢â¬ is a use of personification. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s as if the helmets were fighting against the soldiers. Personification is useful, because you can relate to a human experience/image. Floundering is a strong verb; It gives you a clear image of this man struggling for life. Wilfred Owen also uses an extended metaphor of the sea, giving you a clear and a visual image of this struggle. Ã¢â¬Å"As under a green sea, I saw him drowningÃ¢â¬ . An extended metaphor keeps the image going. Ã¢â¬Å"plungesÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"guttering, choking, drowningÃ¢â¬ are all related to the sea, so therefore an extended metaphor. Also the words Ã¢â¬Å"guttering, choking, drowningÃ¢â¬ are a form of onomatopoeia, Owen makes us use our senses, to hear this manÃ¢â¬â¢s suffering. As if we were there. The poet uses the adjective Ã¢â¬Å"greenÃ¢â¬ , this colour is often associated with evil, this is used to make the readers think that everything that is going on is evil and wrong. Ã¢â¬Å"In all my dreams, before my helpless sightÃ¢â¬ this is a quite shocking sentence to use. Wilfred Owen has obviously been scared by this manÃ¢â¬â¢s death, not one but Ã¢â¬Å"allÃ¢â¬ of his dreams re haunted by this man dying in front of his sight. This creates a feeling of horror and sympathy for Wilfred Owen and all the men who suffered like this. It is obvious in the third stanza, that war disgusts Wilfred Owen. The adjectives he uses emphasize his opinion; adjectives like Ã¢â¬Å"vileÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"obsceneÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"bitterÃ¢â¬ . These are all very harsh words to use, but all portray his opinion clearly. The imagery Owen also uses in this stanza gives the impression that war is disgusting. The simile Ã¢â¬Å"like a devilÃ¢â¬â¢s sick of sinÃ¢â¬ shows OwenÃ¢â¬â¢s absolute disgust, you can feel that as well. This simile implies that war is the work of the devil, and even he is sick of it! Another poetic technique used in this stanza is the alliteration of the letter Ã¢â¬Å"WÃ¢â¬ -Ã¢â¬Å"Watch the white eyes writhing in his faceÃ¢â¬ You canÃ¢â¬â¢t exactly say it quickly so you have to say it slowly so you can think about it, and realise the horror and reality of what is happening. The tone throughout this stanza is angry and harsh; this reflects Wilfred OwenÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts and feelings about war. Ã¢â¬Å"Dulce et Decorum Est Pro patria moriÃ¢â¬ is a lie and Wilfred Owen is disgusted by it! A capital L is used to make the lie important, and a colon is used to introduced the unforgivable lie, it is also used to make us stop and think about it before we say it. Wilfred Owen uses a great depth of feeling in this poem, he uses emotive language and his personal impression and traumatic experience of war affects the convincing and clear message of the devastation of war! Comparison of two war poems (Dulce et decorum est and Suicide in the trenches) As a comparison to the poem by Wilfred Owen, we have been studying Ã¢â¬Å"Suicide in the trenchesÃ¢â¬ by the war poet, Siegfried Sassoon. Ã¢â¬Å"Dulce et Decorum EstÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Suicide in the trenchesÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ themes are similar. They both are about the reality and harshness of war. Unlike Ã¢â¬Å"Dulce et Decorum EstÃ¢â¬ , from the title Ã¢â¬Å"Suicide in the TrenchesÃ¢â¬ you can figure out that the title is about death, to be specific a suicide. The word Siegfried Sassoon uses in the title, suicide, could mean a few different things. Maybe it could mean that going to war is suicidal, or basically that someone commits suicide in the trenches. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s different to Ã¢â¬Å"Dulce et Decorum EstÃ¢â¬ because it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t ironic and Sassoon actually tells you what happens, he puts you straight, whilst Owen leaves you thinking about the theme and message of the poem. The poem, like Ã¢â¬Å"Dulce et Decorum EstÃ¢â¬ , focuses on the death of one soldier in the First World War. Sassoon describes this young manÃ¢â¬â¢s life before the war, and how Ã¢â¬Å"simpleÃ¢â¬ it was, and how satisfied he was with it. The poet then goes to talk about the war, and the horror of it. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s as if Sassoon is making a list of all that is wrong and bad about the war, but mainly what is wrong with the trenches. In the second stanza he stresses the awful health conditions, loneliness, patriotism, and the lack of resources the soldiers faced in the trenches. Siegfried SassoonÃ¢â¬â¢s use of the word Ã¢â¬Å"andÃ¢â¬ in the second stanza is as if he is building up to the point where this man canÃ¢â¬â¢t take any more of it, so he commits suicide. Sassoon then speaks directly to us, like Wilfred Owen in Ã¢â¬Å"Dulce et Decorum EstÃ¢â¬ , both poets are disgusted by this war, but mostly by the people who cheer and support the soldiers. In a way, they both makes us feel guilty about it. In the first stanza, Siegfried Sassoon uses the adjective Ã¢â¬Å"simpleÃ¢â¬ to describe the soldierÃ¢â¬â¢s life before the war. He led a Ã¢â¬Å"simpleÃ¢â¬ life, but was satisfied with it. The adjective Ã¢â¬Å"simpleÃ¢â¬ could have also been used to indicate that this was a boy, Ã¢â¬Å"simpleÃ¢â¬ and naÃ ¯ve. The poet also says Ã¢â¬Å"who grinned at life in empty joyÃ¢â¬ . This suggests that this Ã¢â¬Å"boyÃ¢â¬ didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have many aims in life, and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t let anything really bother him. This could also mean that he was from a working background, like a farm. The sentence Ã¢â¬Å"And whistled early with the larkÃ¢â¬ suggests that he had to get up early, like a farmer. Unlike Ã¢â¬Å"Dulce et Decorum EstÃ¢â¬ , the first stanza in Ã¢â¬Å"Suicide in the TrenchesÃ¢â¬ is quite positive. Sassoon uses words like Ã¢â¬Å"joyÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"grinnedÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"slept soundlyÃ¢â¬ . Sassoon also uses open vowels, Ã¢â¬Å"boyÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"joyÃ¢â¬ , which are light words to say. All these words accentuate his freedom and happiness. Siegfried Sassoon uses these particular words for a contrast in the next stanza, where all these negative and heavy words are used. The poet does this contrast to toy with our emotions. The poet also might have done this to emphasize the harshness and reality of war, and how different it is to this boyÃ¢â¬â¢s simple but satisfied life. In the second stanza, Sassoon uses the rhyming couplet Ã¢â¬Å"glumÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"rumÃ¢â¬ . These are quite heavy words, and not like the open vowels used in the first stanza. Siegfried Sassoon uses these to emphasize the soldiers, how Ã¢â¬Å"glumÃ¢â¬ and weary they were, and to highlight how tiring and difficult it was for them. The words Ã¢â¬Å"lack of rumÃ¢â¬ could mean two things; that literally there was no rum, or he was less energetic, because rum dulls the senses. Maybe without it he canÃ¢â¬â¢t cope. I have said before that SassoonÃ¢â¬â¢s use of the word Ã¢â¬Å"andÃ¢â¬ and his lack of punctuation in the first two lines to drag the sentences on, and that makes it longer, and makes it sound longer too. In a way Sassoon is building up all the horrible things to the point where this young man canÃ¢â¬â¢t take any more of it. This creates sympathy for the soldiers who faced conditions like this. Siegfried Sassoon only uses two lines to portray the conditions of war, whilst Wilfred Owen uses many more lines and makes it longer and more detailed. In the third line of the second stanza, the sentence Ã¢â¬Å"He put a bullet through his brain.Ã¢â¬ Finishes with a full stop. The full stop used here highlights the fact that this manÃ¢â¬â¢s life has ended. His life, like the sentence, has come to a stop. Sassoon uses punctuation here, to stop and make you think about what has actually just happened. The next line Ã¢â¬Å"No one spoke of him again.Ã¢â¬ Is a change in the rhythm. Throughout the poem so far, there has been eight syllables in each line, but when we get to this sentence there is only seven syllables. Sassoon changes the rhythm here to stress the fact there isnÃ¢â¬â¢t any need to speak of this man again. Although, the change in rhythm could also mean that people are in a way ashamed to speak of this man again, because he committed suicide, everyone overlooks him as a coward. The poet uses a full stop here as well, to make the reader stop and acknowledge what has just happened. The third stanza is like the last stanza in Ã¢â¬Å"Dulce et Decorum EstÃ¢â¬ . The poets speak directly to us and tell us how they feel about the war, and how disgusted they are by it. The tones used by both the poets in the last stanza are a little sympathetic but really angry, this illustrates their actual feelings of war. The tone used is also sort of disgraced, as if Sassoon is ashamed of crowd of people cheering at these young lads. It makes us think about what we think of war, and makes us question ourselves on our opinions etc. When Sassoon uses the metaphor Ã¢â¬Å"hellÃ¢â¬ he is describing war as Ã¢â¬Å"hellÃ¢â¬ . This gives a clear and evident image to relate to. Wilfred Owen also uses the image of hell in Ã¢â¬Å"Dulce et Decorum EstÃ¢â¬ too. This image makes the reader understand that war is a hellish and horrible place. When Siegfried Sassoon says Ã¢â¬Å"youth and laughterÃ¢â¬ he is trying to get the image across that these are young Ã¢â¬Å"ladsÃ¢â¬ . He uses words like Ã¢â¬Å"simpleÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"ladsÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"boyÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"youth and laughterÃ¢â¬ to underline that these were naÃ ¯ve insecure children. It is clear that Siegfried Sassoon disapproves of the fact that children of fighting in this hellish place. Wilfred Owen also does this in Ã¢â¬Å"Dulce et Decorum EstÃ¢â¬ . Wilfred Owen says Ã¢â¬Å"My friend you would not tell with such high zest to children ardent for some desperate glory, the old lieÃ¢â¬ Siegfried Sassoon uses the word Ã¢â¬Å"kindlingÃ¢â¬ , to describe the Ã¢â¬Å"eye(s)Ã¢â¬ of the Ã¢â¬Å"smug-faced crowdsÃ¢â¬ . Sassoon tries to show with a sarcastic tone that they think war is a glorious thing, that they feel proud of these children, and seem to understand and appreciate what they are doing. But in reality, they can never imagine what these children are going through, and in reality, they donÃ¢â¬â¢t care or feel appreciative of what the children did. Therefore, the word kindling reveals the hypocrisy behind people who support war. The structure of this poem is different to Ã¢â¬Å"Dulce et Decorum EstÃ¢â¬ . Sassoon uses rhyme and rhythm to make the poem sound light and bouncy. He not only does this to make it more memorable, but he does this to emphasize the contrast of what the Ã¢â¬Å"smug-faced crowdÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ impression and enthusiasm towards war, and what the reality and harshness of war actually is. Siegfried Sassoon also could of used the rhyme and rhythm like this, because it sort of like a childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s poem. He could have done this to accentuate the naive young manÃ¢â¬â¢s death. Ã¢â¬Å"Dulce et Decorum EstÃ¢â¬ was dragged out more, and longer. The rhyme is different and wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t as noticeable as Ã¢â¬Å"Suicide in the TrenchesÃ¢â¬ . Also in Ã¢â¬Å"suicide in the trenchesÃ¢â¬ , Sassoon stresses all the good and jolly words in stanza one, to reflect the boyÃ¢â¬â¢s happy/joyful life. In stanza two though, Sassoon stresses all the bad and negative words to point out the awful conditions. This makes you, as a reader, feel the sympathy for the soldiers. After reading and analysing both the poems, I prefer Ã¢â¬Å"Dulce et Decorum EstÃ¢â¬ . I like this poem better, because the poet used very detailed imagery. Wilfred Owen describes the scene more, and describes the soldiers as well. I had more images to relate to, and that helped me to understand the poemÃ¢â¬â¢s message, and poetÃ¢â¬â¢s feeling and what he was trying to put across. I also like the idea that Wilfred Owen didnÃ¢â¬â¢t give much away to what the poem was about, and left you thinking and wondering after reading the title. Although the rhyming in Ã¢â¬Å"Suicide in the TrenchesÃ¢â¬ is more memorable, I like the fact that in Ã¢â¬Å"Dulce et Decorum EstÃ¢â¬ , you donÃ¢â¬â¢t really recognize the rhyme at first. But I do like the poem Ã¢â¬Å"Suicide in the TrenchesÃ¢â¬ , but I felt it more effective that Wilfred Owen uses his personal traumatic experience to explain what war is actually like. (Thankyou for reading my essay! I hope you enjoyed it and that it helped you!! Ã°Å¸â¢â
Thursday, January 9, 2020
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